Books on Injuries, Prevention of Injuries

September 11, 2019


Part 2: Injuries, Pain, Soreness

September 11, 2019

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PART 2 : INJURIES-PAIN-SORENESS. Just because a medical professional “cleared” you does not mean all problems are over. At some point, all medical/therapy roads come to an end. When they do, then what? Ask a lot of questions. Anything you can think of. Most importantly, find out what things you should probably limit, avoid or NOT DO in the future. But after that, most likely, you’ll be on your own. Discomfort, pain and things-in-general “not feeling the same” might be a reality. Do everything you can not to take pain killers unless you really need them or your doctor has had a long conversation with you about the option. The most important thing now is to get back to as normal of a life as possible. With regards to movement and exercise, you will need to start VERY slow and experiment with everything. You may be surprised at what you CAN do but also what you CAN’T do, at least not yet. Remember, first make sure there aren’t things you shouldn’t be doing. Besides that, always listen to your body. Start LIGHT, SIMPLE AND SLOW. Learn to move well using only your bodyweight. If using some form of external/manual resistance, start with very light weights, simple movements (that you understand), and can perform near-perfect form. Lastly, make sure to start by moving SLOW. If something hurts, see if you can safely modify or maybe try doing something different. There might very well be some things that you won’t be able to do. It’s ok. Learn to work around them. There are many options. Research. Explore. Don’t be too cautious but also don’t be reckless. Use that beautiful brain! #blueskystrongbox #austinpersonaltrainer #austinpersonaltraining

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5 minute Daily Maintenance Routines are a GREAT idea!

February 15, 2019

New Weekly Health & Fitness Tips! “No pain, no gain” has always had limitations. You don’t have to be in constant pain to make progress. This week i talk briefly about soreness due to exercise. Some soreness is normal, unavoidable and typical ok. Some is not. Normal soreness should be infrequent and bi-lateral. In other words, if one arm or leg is sore, the other side should be equally sore. This kind of soreness is mostly due to microscopic tears in the muscles, which sounds bad but is actual very normal, due to them having to work against incoming resistance. But there are other kinds of soreness, which affects areas in a way that is not productive and may even be harmful. They may even seem similar to the good kind but are more intense and shouldn’t be frequent, or chronic. Don’t seek out soreness. Instead, gradually disrupt your homeostasis. Too much damage done too often is to be avoided. “Stimulate, don’t annihilate”. Progress can be made without killing yourself in the gym. So my questions is always this, When is it really ok to be really sore on a regular basis? The answer is, it’s not ok. Say what you want, do what you will but trust me, being sore on a regular basis, to the point of altering the way you were meant to move, is almost always gonna be wrong, especially if done intentially.

February 6, 2017

January 23, 2015

Ideas for a better warmup:
THE “Old” WARMUP (5-15min): Most people just hop on a treadmill or stationary bike for anywhere from 5-20 minutes to “warmup”. This works but it’s most likely not as effective as other options. Guys who plan on lifting “heavy” weights often ONLY warmup by doing light warmup-sets of their chosen exercise(s) for the day. Again, this also works but considering the fact that most of us know we need more stretching in our lives, including at least a few simple stretches in the warmup might be more optimal. Often guys are also scared to stretch before they lift because, “rumor has it”, you won’t get as big and strong. While it may be true that doing a marathon stretching session before lifting might be counterproductive for some, including other “types” of stretching has proven to actually increase strength & performance when done correctly. Lastly, some folks do their “cardio” first before lifting “weights”, i would assume in hopes of losing some unwanted body fat. Again, this is probably not the best idea UNLESS you are primarily seeking to increase your endurance for a specific event, competition or occupation. But for everyone else, i don’t recommend it. Ever, really. Normally, too much “cardio” before “lifting weights” interferes with… you guessed it, the weights. (And just to clarify, “weights”, “lifting”, “lifting weights” “strength machines”, “strength training”, “resistance training”, “body weight training”, “calisthenics”, “hard yoga”, “hard pilates”, etc are ALL basically the same thing!) “The primary purpose of resistance training is to get stronger, and for some, also build muscle. Both these things can also indirectly aid with fat loss. But keep in mind, getting stronger and building muscle both require INTENSITY to get the desired results. So don’t empty your fuel tank too early by doing too much in the warmup. If your goal is fat-loss, getting stronger or packing on more muscle, try including a short, intense 10-minute “interval session” after “weights” (aka “a finisher”). I’d also recommend doing your longer “cardio” workouts or group classes on another day, all by themselves, if you have the time available.

THE “New” WARMUP (5-10) So here we go. Here are some new things to try as your “warmup”. First and foremost, correct breathing is essential and often overlooked. This means breathing deeply from your diaphragm, through your nose. Keep this in mind as you warmup and proceed to the rest of your workout. I often tell people to do all movements at a pace that allows you sync your breathing with each repeat of that movement. Start your warmup by massaging some of the major muscles regions (back, legs, hips, calves) with a Foam Roller. (This is what most professional athletes do.)Most gyms have them. Walmart, Target, Amazon, etc all sell them for $30 or less). Then do a few safe Dynamic Stretches (aka “moving stretches”). Google this. Then perform a few easy body-weight warmup movements, focusing on stabilizing your spine and moving your many joints about (especially the hip & arm sockets). To summarize, you could very quickly Foam Roll 2-3 major areas of your body, do 2-3 full body stretches and 2-3 major body-weight movements (easy pushups, easy pulling & easy squatting), and be done in less than 10 minutes. You could even include 1-2 “core” exercises near the end or even devote some of the time to practice a new exercise (with no weight or a light weight) that maybe needs some practice. If you really want to hit everything, perform all the primitive movement patterns every time you warmup. (Check out any of Mark Verstegen’s Books). Research all this stuff! Educate yourself. It’s free. Keep things simple. Many things could work. Just keep this in mind, the purpose of a “warmup” is to get you prepared/ramped-up for the harder work ahead, not beat you done prematurely. The key is always to maximize your time, this should include not wasting any precious time doing useless sh*t during a warmup. You may want extend your warmup longer if you are sore or dealing with an injury, have specific “corrective exercises” you know you need to include, it’s really cold outside or you just woke up. We all know we need to stretch more, etc. Include these type things in your warmup and you can always get a lot done in each session, regardless of time. Density is the key.
– Carlton

p.s. Keep things simple. Always. I know i mentioned a lot of things, and that was just the silly warmup. lol. The reality is that the details of exercise and programming can easily start to bog any mind down. So don’t let it. Start by including just one new thing next time your workout. Build on that over time. The point is to move more, move better. There will probably never be a “perfect” way. And while some will waste time searching tirelessly for that, you should be out there getting work done. Time is of the essence. Ask for help if you need it. Work hard. Play hard. Enjoy.

New Weekly Tipz! This week i go over 10 or so “common” mistakes that most people make when it comes to attempting to improve fitness and health. They are common because so many people do them so often. Don’t let it be you. Feel free to ask any questions. And please share. I wish you all the best :)

March 13, 2013

New Weekly Tipz! Ever wonder what stretches you should do before you start moving around too much? Do you find it hard to do all the stretches you think you should be doing before exercise? Well, I have an answer. I call it the “Carlton Stretch”. But you can call it whatever you want. Like Nike said, Just do it.

August 31, 2012

New Weekly Tipz (repost)! This week is part 1 of 2 (or 3). I just wanted to show some of you what “full body” movements look like. Just to get you thinking. There will be more next week and a workout video the week after next. This video today is NOT a workout or a prescription. It’s just me showing a bunch of progressions of movement. Some are easy, some are a bit harder. The idea is to not sit down to do exercise…stand up!

February 12, 2012

To Stretch or Not to Stretch?

February 21, 2011

Static Stretching (Balanced Body Series)

by Gray Cook

Mike Boyle is talking about killing kittens and other terrible things…………….

Recently I had an opportunity to hear my good friend, Mike Boyle give a talk at a Perform Better Summit. In his opening statements he made mention to the effective use of static stretching in some of his programs. Some attendees in the room would have had a more positive response if Mike had said, “hey guys let’s go kill some kittens”. It was almost like Mike had to defend static stretching, even though there is some research showing its effectiveness. Research also shows some more efficient ways to get muscle length to change. I’m not going to waste your time with those references at this point; A Goggle or Medline search can help you with that. Dr. Stuart McGill has stated that “static stretching deadens the muscle from a neural perspective – diminishing the stretch reflex and reducing peak strength and power” and I agree with this statement. Over a long period of time I feel that indiscriminately holding static stretches will create more problems than it will correct. So why am I saying Mike and Stuart both have a point. Let me explain:

I would like to lend my support and admiration to Mike for sticking to his guns about static stretching. Mike is an excellent teacher and coach. He teaches by example with a quick eye for practical application. I think he talks about static forms of stretching because of the results he observes when trying to change and improve movement patterns as well as educate his athletes and clients. Many people would be surprised that I’m an advocate of static stretching but, I definitely think it has its place. Scientifically, there may be better, quicker and faster ways to develop muscle length or change and maintain muscle length; however, they require a higher level of expertise, are more technique intensive, and usually have a more significant learning curve for the user than static stretching. Let me go over some of the benefits of static stretching for the user.

As a personal trainer, performance specialist, or rehabilitation professional, you may screen or assess someone who has less than optimal range of motion. You may identify that muscle length is a problem and therefore want to improve muscle length. The first order of business is achieving agreement with the client, athlete, or patient. You must make sure that the individual has an appreciation of that which you have discovered. You can take the movement pattern (squatting, lunging, backward bending, etc.) that presents them with difficulty and find safe static stretching positions within that pattern that actually make them completely aware of their specific limitation. It only takes a few other individuals doing the same stretch with no difficulty to let them know they have a deficiency. You then have an opportunity to say to them, “This is your priority”. They are immediately aware, both externally by watching others move, and internally by feeling their own restrictions that a barrier does exist. All the exercise in the world will not change their movement without attention to this limitation. It may be obvious to you, but you must drive this point for them. Further more, if a left-right asymmetry is present, there is yet another dimension of appreciation afforded to the user. This opens a discussion of injury prevention and movement efficiency. Most of the research data that we are currently collecting points towards left-right asymmetry as a huge problem and underlying reason for compensation. Using a static stretch position to allow your client, athlete, or patient to have an appreciation of a left-right asymmetry is invaluable. You have given them both a perspective of a problem or limitation that they currently have and a baseline measure that they can re-check every day before and after every training session. They can gauge the effectiveness of the other mobility techniques you employ on their simple and primitive baseline static stretch. The static stretch offers them a safe, proprioceptive awareness of where the restriction is, and making that awareness raise to the conscious level will help them appreciate the holistic approach that you are taking with them.

Now that you have shown them a barrier, you can educate them as to how this barrier can be overcome. You can break out some cool foam roll stuff, or fancy Stick work or even some great PNF technique to accelerate the resetting of normal muscle tone.

Then ask them to try the static stretch again. Sit back and enjoy the “Wow” moment.

Here are the steps:

1. Identify the most significant faulty pattern (screen). If muscle length / tone (identified by assessment) is the problem then –
2. Reset tone in the area of limited muscular length
3. Introduce normal ROM and length to the muscle group
4. Reset pattern with a corrective maneuver that utilizes the basic mobility and stability needed in the primary pattern.
5. Don’t be surprised if you can reduce time and activity in step 2 and then step 3 as things improve. Invest the extra time in step 4. Eventually if you have successfully addressed the primary problem, you can effectively use step 4 as movement preparation.

Note that I’m now using the word tone instead of length because muscle length is usually a physical representation of muscle tone. Tone is simply a characteristic of a skeletal muscle brought about by the constant flow of nerve stimuli. This tone creates the resistance to stretching. Abnormal muscle tone can be defined as:

* hypertonus – increased muscle tone, as in spasticity in extreme cases when the neurological system is functioning abnormally, and tight muscles when the neurological system is considered normal. The tight muscles are usually the result of poor habits in posture and movement and usually respond to corrective exercise.
* hypotonus – reduced muscle tone, as in flaccid paralysis in extreme cases when the neurological system is functioning abnormally, and long, sloppy, and weak muscles when the neurological system is considered normal. The long, sloppy, and weak muscles are usually the result of poor habits in posture and movement and usually respond to corrective exercise.

You can also introduce yoga postures. Yoga can be very helpful because the focus is on breathing. Many don’t understand the natural, protective reflex response, to tighten up, when we come upon a barrier like a tight muscle. We breathe shallow, grimace with our facial muscles, and push, thinking that if we just push a little harder, the barrier will yield. We somehow think the tight muscle will give in. But, very often, the individual with a flexibility problem will actually tighten and contract the muscle that they are trying to stretch. The reason the muscle is tight in the first place, is probably because it is being used improperly. This muscle may be activated twice as frequently as it should because of a lack of muscle strength or coordination in another area of the body. This muscle is actually tight because it’s protecting itself; it’s been overused and it’s generally fatigued. Part of its protection involves shortening its length to reduce its workload (contractile length) and guard against unforeseen stretching. Pushing the stretch can actually, in some cases, make the muscle you’re stretching contract even harder. This is a great opportunity to educate your athlete, client or patient and talk to them about breathing. Deep slow breaths with a relaxed expression can make a huge difference. Take a big, deep inhale breath, and enter the stretch on the super slow exhale breath. Repeat this same slow cycle the entire time you are in the stretch position.

Another thing we learn from yoga is that many of the stretches actually require you to support or brace your body in such a way, that you are not just lengthening one muscle, you are statically stabilizing with another. It is this static stability that allows you to elongate the muscle on stretch. Many of the yoga postures require you to hold yourself up in proper postural alignment while elongating one segment. This proper alignment is not simply done for aesthetic purposes; statically stabilizing your body while elongating another part of your body is more functional. It looks like static stretching, but there is a lot of stabilization going on. You do not sink and sag into a stretch, you hold your body erect, breathe into your diaphragm, and allow the segment that you are stretching to elongate. If you force it, it will contract. As you reach your barrier, breathe, tighten or hold the supporting parts of your body with more conscious control and watch the length come back to the area of your stretching focus.

I truly feel that there’s a lesson in life here. When you reach a barrier, do you push and grimace and force, or do you breathe, assess your surroundings, check your alignment and ease with patients and caution into unfamiliar territory?

One last thing you need to consider is how you actually think about muscle tightness. To help work this out, ask yourself this question on a daily basis for at least two weeks; what drives the tightness? Obviously, we are talking about static stretching because we’ve all uncovered tightness. We all know the need to reduce or resolve that tightness, but tightness in and of itself is not the problem. There is something causing the tightness. What is behind it? What is driving the tightness? Usually you will find muscle tightness is a by-product of inefficient movement patterns where muscles unnecessarily have to compensate or work overtime to help you achieve your fitness and athletic goals. Many people think, ‘well, if I just push harder or exercise longer or lift more, the problem will work itself out’. Not necessarily so. If anything, activity will reinforce a compensation, unless it is identified and addressed at its most primitive and fundamental level. My point is, if you don’t have the basic mobility and stability for a ground based activity, like a posture from yoga, a deep squat or side plank position, then performing a hang clean, plyometrics or an advanced Pilates moves is really not what you need to be doing. You need to go back and get that fundamental primitive mobility and stability when you are connected to the ground. When you become proficient you can build on that.

Learning for yourself to answer the question, ‘where does the tightness come from’, will help you educate clients and athletes about their own flexibility. When they say to you, ‘why do you think my hamstrings are so tight’, say, ‘I think they’re tight because you are using them that way’. I think that improving your movement patterns such as squatting and lunging and balancing on one leg may activate your glutes, and by activating those glutes, we reduce the dependence on extra hamstring work. Those hamstrings will actually become more flexible and functional, when they are not overworked. One of the catch-phrases I always like to state in my workshops is very simple, but very complex in its application:

“Don’t go for length in one place, if you don’t plan on adding strength in another place.”

And, for every small bit of length that you gain in one place, make sure you add a piece of strength in the other. That length you are taking away is the body trying to create stability in a muscle that wasn’t made as a stabilizer. These muscles are often found to be tight.

Below is a list of muscles prone to tightness and prone to weakness. You can see that the muscles prone to tightness are actually movers, and if they are used as postural stabilizers, will often get tight. You will also notice that the muscles prone to weakness are actually postural stabilizers, and if they are not used efficiently, or if poor alignment does not allow them to activate automatically with movement, they will actually become weak with disuse.

Janda’s functional division of muscle groups:

Muscles Prone to Weakness:

* Peronei
* Tibialis anterior
* Vastus medialis and lateralis
* Gluteus maximus, medius, and minimus
* Rectus abdominis
* Serratus anterior
* Rhomboids
* Lower portion of the trapezius
* Short cervical flexors
* Extensors of the upper limb

Muscles Prone to Tightness:

* Gastroc/Soleus
* Tibialis posterior
* Short hip adductors
* Hamstrings
* Rectus femoris
* Iliopsoas
* Tensor fasciae latae
* Piriformis
* Erector spinae
* Quadratus lumborum
* Pectoralis major
* Upper trapezius
* Levator scapulae
* Scalenes
* Flexors of the upper limb

*This list is not intended to create controversy. I realize that this list was constructed some years ago and some may consider one or two muscles are misplaced. I prefer to look at the concept that Janda has introduced. He is showing us a concept of patterns. The weakness causes the tightness and the tightness causes the weakness. You cannot just fix only one because they are mutually dysfunctional. Also note that the list of ‘muscles prone to weakness’ usually function as stabilizers and the ‘muscles prone to tightness’ usually function as movers. Why not consider one of the underlying causes of muscle tightness to be a dysfunctional stabilizer system that causes movers to shorten in an attempt to create support. Simply stretching muscles that appear tight will only address part of the problem and will rarely get to the cause.

Summery of static stretching points with comments:

* A static stretch creates awareness of tightness and sets a baseline for future comparison. It can function as a quick self appraisal of limitation, changes in limitation, or lack of limitation. It can also create awareness of appreciable asymmetries between functional units of the right and left side of the body. Dr. McGill supports static stretching in the presence of asymmetry.
* A static stretch creates safety because a stretch should be felt in the belly or midsection of a muscle, not the tendon, and not over a joint. If this is felt, something more than a tight muscle is going on here. You probably have a joint problem or tendonitis. “No pain no gain” does not apply here. If a static stretch produces pain, over a joint or tendon, you have a problem that stretching alone will not fix. Do not proceed to exercise or training without getting this assessed.
* A static stretch creates perspective with respect to movement. If the muscles that cross your ankles, knees, and hips are tight they will probably limit your squatting movement pattern. If the muscles that cross your ankles, knees, and hips are not tight and are considered normal and you cannot perform a squatting movement pattern you may have a stabilization problem. If your stabilizers do not support your skeletal system as you lower into the squat you must use your movers as a secondary support system. This will distort joint alignment and create poor postural control within the movement pattern. Consider this next time you pick exercises that do not utilize postural control (leg press, bench press etc…).
* A static stretch creates education if you take the time to discuss the potential causes of muscle tightness during the stretching session. Ask ‘where does tightness come from’ and see what responses you get. Here are some hints. One or all may fit any situation.
o Movement habits drive tightness – focus on better exercise and athletic techniques.
o Postural habits drive tightness – look at the positions of the body during sitting, sleeping, driving, and standing. Some habitual positions can create muscle shortness so consider the four positions above.
o Emotional stress can drive tightness – This is often overlooked and avoided in discussions about muscle tightness, but it is a big part of excess muscle tension (See Yoga and Breathing).
o Trigger points – are extra electrical activity in a small part of a muscle that can create muscle tightness and pain. They can result from an old muscle injury to chronic muscle tension (see all of the above). They respond best to manual pressure and stick work followed by stretching and correct exercise habits.

In closing, I would like you to understand that I do support static stretching, for the simple fact that it helps make the individual aware of their most basic limitation. It makes them think! It causes an open exchange of ideas of where the limitation has come from and what can potentially result if the limitation is not addressed. It’s easy, simple and uncomplicated. They can reproduce it, and hopefully, you will start adding more functional movements on top to keep the flexibility issues from returning. Assure them that the static stretching is necessary but only temporary. If you do your job you can turn the improved muscle length into functional movement. If movements remain functional then muscle length has no reason to return to its previous limited state. Mike is right on the money with his static stretching comments. People need time to understand and get reconnected with their body. Once this understanding is present then introduce them to more advanced techniques. I can’t think of a better way to make this point, than with some simple static stretches to show people, ‘here’s your problem’, ‘here is what I’ve found’, ‘here is where you will need to focus’. This sets you up to say ‘now, I’m going to show you some advanced and fancy stuff’, but you will always have a baseline and a perspective of where that original limitation was. If you don’t show them that, they’re not going to know how good you are.

Oh yeah…. I don’t really think Mike has problems with kittens.

Our poster series reviews in great detail how we use the Functional Movement Screen to identify faulty patterns. We use the stick and various stretches to reset tone and movement training to create harmony between stabilizers and movers. These are foundation of the corrective strategy for the movement patterns in the Functional Movement Screen. Two companion CD-roms walk you through my powerpoint presentation for each poster and guide you through the exercises that correct each pattern in the Functional Movement Screen. See a full line of our Functional Movement Screen products.

CaRLToN’s Client Warm-Up/Activation/Mobility Circuit – November 10, 2010

November 10, 2010

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